Space Monitoring and Analysis System (SMAS) is designed to collect, process and analyze data on the space environment conditions, the preparation and delivery to consumers of space environment data, collection of the state and trends of its development.
The SMAS is responsible for solving the main tasks:
The SMAS operates optical, radio engineering, software and hardware complexes.
At this moment, modernization and development of specialized measuring instruments are being carried out, as well as work on cooperation with astronomical observatories of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory Research Institute) and the universities of Ukraine (Odesa I. I. Mechnikov National University, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Uzhhorod National University).
The main aim of space-based situational awareness systems is to obtain data on the space environment, the exact identification of space objects, the determination of their belonging and destination, the assessment of the condition of the enemy’s space systems, the detection of activity and early preparation for the conduct of hostilities. The civilian component of the system’s activities is to obtain parametric trajectory information about space objects through a network of optical means and radar coverage of the space environment, radio systems, the work of which is based on various physical principles. Complexion of information coming from various measuring instruments is achieved by creating a single real-time intelligence field at all altitudes at maximum detection and warning distances. Military component and component of national security is to obtain information about the specific purpose of each space object, the operative assessment of its capabilities in terms of potential threats to own resources, the assessment of the state of the enemy’s space systems, the formation of targets for high-precision weapon shock systems.
We recognize that space situational awareness systems should have international character and be based on the principles of co-operation. It is immediately assumed that there are distributed monitoring devices throughout the globe, networks of transmission systems, and the exchange of operational data between individual elements, operators of the system. Only on such principles of our work sufficient level of completeness of space missions can be provided, reduced risks and high level of trust between countries in the use of outer space can be maintained.
TYPES OF SPACE MONITORING
Land space radars have historically become the basis of systemic space awareness of various types. Radar consist of a transmitter that corrects the EM wave at specially selected frequencies and receiver that receives reflected signal from the SO (space object) weak signal, processes it and determines its coordinates. The main advantages of the radar are the active precise measurement of the sloping range to the SO. However, there are also radars, which can simultaneously highlight the situation in a large number of SO. That is, according to the purpose, radars are conventionally divided into radars of the so-called long-range detection and support of the next regime and radar surveillance and coverage of the space environment. The main drawbacks of the radar are their considerable cost, size, complexity and costs for maintenance.
Optoelectronic and optical means are also widely used in the situational awareness systems of different countries. Telescopes receive light or other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum coming from or reflected from the KO, focusing them with a system of lenses, mirrors, or the simultaneous combination of lenses and mirrors on special sensors for further processing. The main advantages of telescopes are providing surveillance at significant altitudes of 5 thousand kilometers. But recently, in many countries, the technology of observing small SO in medium and high segments of low-orbit altitudes, ie, 1000-3000 km with the use of small optical apertures, is being implemented. Some telescopes have the capability to obtain high resolution CO images. The main drawbacks of the use of optical means for different purposes are the need for specific optical conditions of observation, although the placement of optical apertures in space removes a significant part of the problem constraints of this nature.
Other monitoring and space monitoring facilities include radio frequency monitoring sensors and satellite signal detectors of various types, laser distance meters, IR monitoring equipment, etc.
FEATURES OF WORLD PLAYER SYSTEMS AND INITIATIVES
USA is the owner of the largest network of surveillance equipment and information in the space environment. Currently, they have the most complete catalog of SO. The US Air Force has the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) system. Mainly, the system consists of a radar network with long-range radar detection and tracking, several radar drives with mechanical drives and a network of so-called “space barriers” that extends parallel from the west to the east on the territory of the southern states of USA, as well as a new radar system on the Marshall Islands and in the western part of Australia. The system also includes orbital instruments with low-orbit optical telescopes: the space shuttle satellite system SBSS Space-Based Surveillance Satellite and the Canadian Sapphire satellite, which operates under the command of the North American command. The US Air Force also has four intelligence satellites GSSAP “1,2,3,4” on a geosynchronous orbit, used in conjunction with the Geosynchronous Space Situation Awareness Program. Regarding low-orbit SBIRS or SBIRS-Low Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS) system, the system is specifically designed for the US Defense Forces Agency by the United States Airborne Missile and Missile Mission to detect the launch of missiles and provide visual optical-electronic and infrared observation, driving exploration directly in orbit. Useful loads provide the ability to detect a missile, track it over the entire area of the movement. On the active part, the middle part and the end portion of the movement area. With the help of these SC, the US Army has the opportunity to observe tests in the upper stratospheric layers, to monitor suborbital tests, tests against satellite weapons and hypersonic gliders of the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation, air space planes, receive trajectory data of high accuracy, provide for discrimination and differentiation of space debris and other SO Data from these SCs, in combination with land-based data, is used to create and calculate targets for shock-guided missile defense missile defense missile systems and anti-satellite weapons complexes. A grouping of two SCs, STSS-1 (USA 208), STSS-2 (USA 209), is a major orbital element in the use of the Missile Defense System (BMDS) Missile Defense Systems (BMDS) range of long range orbital interception.
The architecture of the first-tiered orbital segment of the early detection and surveillance of the United States
Placing US Ground-based Early Detection and Surveillance Systems
Historically, in the southern hemisphere, the US Air Force has not as many means of surveillance of the cosmic environment, as in the northern hemisphere. The newly built radar of the new generation of S-range has to compensate for this shortcoming. With the help of the radar station at the Kwajalein Atoll (Marshal Islands Republic), the US Air Force will receive a catalog of about 200 thousand low-orbit SOs. The C-band radio telescope in the western part of Australia works in conjunction with a radar located at the Reagan training ground in the Marshall Islands.
Data in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) system is being sent to the command center of the United Center for Space Operations stationed at the Vandenberger US Air Force, California. The United Center for Space Operations in the structure of 21th space division of the 14th US Air Force (Space-Strategic) Army is responsible for maintaining the Main Catalog of the system, in which about 22,000 SOs, performs data analysis from the ground segment of the missile warning system, missile defense, orbital the Space Surveillance and Space Control Division, provides intelligence-information support to troops and support of civilian operators of space systems of various uses. Conduct a warning to consumers about the emergence of threats of a cosmic nature. US military forces are constantly involved in improving special software and linking a large number of consumers to a single intelligence system based on bilateral agreements, individual country agreements and multilateral agreements: with Australian, Canadian operators, operators from the UK.
The principle of separation of the MissileDefense System involves: further deploying means of intercepting the Ballistic Target in the active, middle and final parts of the trajectory, deploying a system of combat control and communication and intelligence.
All types of US Armed Forces, a number of state-owned organizations, major enterprises of military-industrial complex and small businesses are actively involved in the Missile Defense program. The US Defense Forces Agency is responsible for coordinating actions. The development of the system involves Israel, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, and Hungary. Implementation of US Missile Defense separation principles is detailed in the Phased Adaptive Approach (PAA) directive of Anti-Missile Defense agency.
It is planned to replace the SEWS system (consisting of a DSP-1 series SC) with the SBIRS system deployed as part of the US and Allied integrated air defense system. The main principle is to intercept the attacking BR as close as possible to the starting point, including under certain conditions and in the active section of the trajectory. The solution to this problem corresponds to a reduction of the valid warning time of no more than 10-20sec., which cannot be realized using SEWSs DSP Space craft. Integration of early warning systems into the missile defense system is carried out in the system of combat control and communications of VM / C3 on the principles of providing them with the quality of Missile Defense System information. The latter implies the possibility of directly issuing targets for anti-missile firing complexes with accuracy that is sufficient to launch missile defense. The maximum duplication of the information field of the radar station of the MDS by fields of optical space-based sensors is carried out. SBIRS has significantly increased the efficiency and reliability of the detection of all types of missile defense and ensures the escort of rocket and missile levels, performs recognition from the start to the atmosphere with accuracy that is sufficient for the operation of the MDSRocket Fire Controlguided missile weaponry.
According to expert’s examinations, the optical and electronic equipment of the SBIRS-low (STSS) system should operate in the infrared range from 4 – 16μm. The accuracy of determining the parameters of the motion of the BB telescopes by the stereo support of the coordinates should be 10 – 50m, at a speed of 6 – 20m / s.
The UDRR (Upgraded Early Warning Radar) modernization of the pre-horizontally identifiable means of the Radar Missile Warning System was carried out on the following subsystems and means of the system.
Ballistic missile early warning system (BMEWS) – Long Range Detection of the BR in the three radar systems: Thule Air Base (Greenland), Clear Airport (Alaska) and Falingate Moore (UK) on serial radar AN / FPS-123V5, 120, 126 respectively.
The Pave Paws subsystem observing the launches and movements of the BRPCH, consisting of 1 radar station on the east coast of the USA at Cape Code (Ottis Base Station, Mass.) And two radars on the west coast of the United States of America Base White (Air Force Base Bil, California) ) on the AN / FPS-123V5 serial radar.
Subsystem PARCS (PerimetrAcguisition Radar Characterization System) on a serial radar station with FAR AN / FPQ-16, based in the Grand Fox Air Force Base area, pc. North Dakota.
The Cobra Dane radar subsystem, with AN / FPS-108 radar, is specifically designed to solve reconnaissance problems, to monitor the trial launches of Russian ICBMs and to detect BR from the China and North Korea. The radar station is based in US Air Force base (Shemya, Aleutian islands, Alaska), but on May 11, 1993, this air base was renamed to Eareckson. The areas of responsibility for the upgraded radar systems of the BMEWS and Pave Paws subsystems form a single information field around North America, which allows the provision of targets for missile defense. Data from the UEWR (Upgraded Early Warning Radar) system is provided to the Central Command Point 21 of the space division of 14 airborne (space-strategic) Army Air Force Base Peterson, Colorado Springs, Colorado (Mount Shayen).
The United States Air Force Space Command also has Ground Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) ground-based space monitoring system, which works to provide data from the Joint Strategic Space Command and Space Situational Awareness System. The main users of the system are United Strategic Command and National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) Air Force Base, Reit Patterson, Dayton, Ohio. At present, the system consists of three geographically distributed places. The system is intended for continuous monitoring of SO, obtaining positional and photometric observations, solving the tasks of determining the functional attributes of SO, assignment and other non-coordinate SO data. The first unit is based on the territory of White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) at Socorro. The second unit is based in the British oceanic area in the Indian Ocean, Diego Garcia. The third division is based on the summit of Chaleacal on Maui Island, Hawaii. The system operates since October 1983, it has worked out two complete resources and proved to be effective. On the sites of the system, new monitoring facilities were constantly installed and gradual modernization was carried out.
RUSSIA HAS THE SECOND-LARGEST NETWORK OF SENSORS TO OBSERVE THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT
The Russian Federation currently has and maintains the second by size and completeness the Main Catalog of Space Objects. The system is armed with 15th separate Army Military Space Forces. Russia is at the final stage of modernization of the space radar station park. In 2018, it is planned to complete closure of all four strategic airspace radar paths using the medium and high-potential radar stations of the Phased array on the technology of high factory readiness of the Voronezh series. Particular importance is given to the construction of radar offshore detection of air targets and their integration into the missile warning system and missile defense. Since 2014, 590 separate radio units have been on the alert for intelligence of air targets of a strategic radius of 3000 km. All the time after the disintegration of the USSR, the Russian Federation tried to get rid of the dependence on the use of the means of the Early-warning radar system, which remained on the territory of the former USSR. It is clear that this task is successfully solved by the Russian side. With regard to the use of optical range equipment, the Russian Federation pays considerable attention to the creation of new optoelectronic observing stations and the use and modernization of existing facilities.
MEANS OF SPACE MONITORING OF EUROPE
Individual European countries also have their own means of observing and monitoring of space environment. Great Britain, France, Germany and Norway have their own radar surveillance radars.There is also a large network of optical means for various purposes. In 2008, the ESA initiated a preparatory program for the creation of the European Space Situational Awareness System, which should be established through a combination of means of participating countries. The program has three segments: the detection and monitoring of space objects, monitoring and forecasting of space weather, monitoring and identification of dangerous space objects (asteroid-cometary danger). In 2014, the EU allocated EUR 70 million for the implementation of the first segment and the creation of the SO Main Catalog. Currently, ESA is expanding the Observatory Park and invests heavily in developing new surveillance tools.
Many EU countries are trying to create their own space observation networks. Various scientific and academic communities are involved in this work, and they can also be involved in solving surveillance problems.
SEPARATE EUROPEAN DETECTION AND SURVEILLANCE TOOLS
The structure diagram of the space weather center
Block diagram of the center for detection and notification of asteroid-comet hazard
The Russian Academy of Sciences is the founder of the so-called International Scientific Optical Network (ISON), consisting of 23 observatories from 11 countries. The network has more than 30 telescopes specially designed for space observations. It is a combination of means with different apertures, but observes a large number of Space objects of various sizes at different altitudes. In addition, there are a large number of astronomers-amateurs watching the space environment. Separate amateurs are engaged in placement and monitoring of radio frequencies from spacecraft. Although amateur-observers do not have an organized structure, they have repeatedly demonstrated their ability to constantly observe even classified Spacecraft that are part of the fleet of intelligence agencies from different countries, including the X-37B.
In 2009, three well-known commercial satellite operators formed a so called nonprofit associative data center: Space Data Association (SDA), headquartered in the Isle of Man. This center provides, with the help of datareceived from various sources, operators of the company with information about the location of spacecraft and the identification of sources of danger for orbital means, engaged in orbital frequency monitoring. Currently, the center includes about 30 space service operators and more than 350 spacecraft, including three well-known state space agencies.
In March 2014, Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI) announced the creation of the Commercial Space Operations Center (ComSpOC). AGI forms a network of heterogeneous means on a commercial basis to meet the potential needs of service providers. ComSpOC integrates all observations into the central data bank of the system and provides service users with identified potential threats and abnormal cases, helping to avoid critical situations.
Space awareness systems have become the source of political initiatives aimed at ensuring the further development of outer space and security. A group of government experts from the United Nations began work on an important document: the international code of space activities. The UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) also takes an active part in the development of long-term behavior in the use of outer space.
CHINA’S BREAKTHROUGH IN CREATING ITS OWN NETWORK OF WARNING AND SURVEILLANCE TOOLS
Early-warning Phase array radar of China
According to open sources, China has a sufficient amount of space coverage equipment to provide its own space systems and assault assets at an adequate level. The rapid development of space technology in the People’s Republic of China, significant opportunities for industrial espionage gives the PRC all the advantages to go first in the rivalry with the United States. The United States considers this to be quite real even in the medium term.
National Space Facilities Control And Test Center was founded in 1996, according to the Decree of the President of Ukraine, the Center of distant space communications in the coastal region of Crimea peninsula, near the town of Yevpatoria. In 2014 to restore the operational control of the National Center and its affiliates by the State Space Agency of Ukraine made a decision on the relocation NCSFCT on the mainland of Ukraine, Kyiv.
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